We know CBD is safe for dogs because all vertebrate animals, just like us humans, have the same endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is a complex cell-signaling system first identified in the early 1990s and it is what processes CBD in the body. While researchers are still studying the ECS, they have found links to how it regulates important life functions, including memory, sleep, appetite and mood.
CBD and ECS receptors are found throughout the body of you and your pets, and they interact to establish a bridge between the body and mind. There are two endocannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptors are found mostly in the nervous system, whereas CB2 receptors are found in immune cells in the peripheral nervous system. When products such as CBD oil are ingested, they interact with the CB1 and CB2 receptors, stimulating the desired effects.
How does the ECS work?
Basically, all vertebrate animals have an ECS, which means CBD and ECS receptors found throughout the body interact to establish a bridge between the body and mind. If that sounds too much like fantasy pseudo-science, look at what some of the brightest scientific minds have to say about it in a recent a piece published by the Harvard Medical School’s Harvard Health Publishing site. The use of CBD has gone well beyond the holistic enthusiasts, entering modern medicine as a viable treatment for humans and pets.
The Down low on ECS Receptors
To learn more about how CBD impacts humans and pets, we have to look more closely at the receptors. Within every ECS system there are two CBD receptor types: CB1 and CB2. According to a study published by the Mayo Clinic, CB1 receptors are “highly expressed” in the central nervous system, which includes the several areas of the brain, but are also found in smooth muscle tissue. The CB2 receptors are found in immune cells, which circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream.
One of the most common reasons humans take CBD is to treat chronic pain, particularly, chronic inflammatory pain. It’s also a top reason pet owners use it on their aching dogs, cats and any other vertebrate pet. Studies have indicated that activating the receptors through the introduction of CBD plays a role in the anti-inflammatory process, which suppresses the sensation of pain. In fact, the CB2 receptor activation has proven to reduce inflammation, so it’s not just masking the pain, it’s treating the root cause of it.
Cytokines? Fortunately, You and Your Pet Have Them
The science behind what’s actually happening in pet and human CB1 and CB2 receptors can get quite complex because the terminology is not something anyone outside of a scientific lab would normally experience. But if there is one element to this that you need to know about, it’s cytokines.
Cureus, an open access medical journal, published an article in September 2020, explaining that cytokines are proteins released by cells, which influences cell to cell communication in immune responses. In the case of inflammation, the CBD interacts with the CB2 receptors and helps move cytokines to the site of the inflammation/infection or trauma.
At PetSoothe™, we find the science behind what’s happening in the CBD industry exciting and we want to share what we’re finding out with pet owners. We’ve taken the science and developed CBD products specifically for your pets. For more information about how our products can make an impact on your pet’s wellness, contact us today.
What are the different types of CBD?
CBD products are hitting the market en masse and there are many consumers new to the products, whether it’s for their own consumption or for that of their pets, and there is no shortage of questions that need to be answered. One of the more common inquiries is: “What’s the difference between full spectrum CBD, broad spectrum CBD and CBD isolate?”
The short answer is that the compounds contained in full and broad spectrum differ only a very little, but in important ways. However, CBD isolate is the purest form of CBD, wherein all the other cannabis compounds are stripped out. It doesn’t even contain terpenes, which means it doesn’t have a smell or taste.
Let’s take a look at each of these and establish the differences, beginning with CBD isolate.
The process of refining CBD to an isolate involves just a few, yet complex steps. Most manufacturers use CO2 or ethanol to extract the CBD. With CO2 extraction, considered one of the more high-tech methods, the cannabis is placed in a chamber under extremely high carbon dioxide pressure and also at a very low temperature. With ethanol, considered easier and less costly, it is used as a solvent to extract the CBD from the flowers and other parts of the cannabis.
Rather than containing a small dosage (less than 0.3%) of THC, as the full spectrum variety does, the CBD isolate has no THC. This is a bonus for those who want zero THC in their system. The disadvantage (to some) is that without the terpenes and essential oils and the trace amount of THC, isolate lacks the “entourage effect,” which is the often-stated health advantage found in full and broad-spectrum CBD.
Broad Spectrum CBD
Broad spectrum CBD is derived from an extraction process that most often uses super chilled butane or propane, which helps to retain the terpenes and cannabinoids. While this process removes the hemp plant’s impurities, it also seeks to remove almost all traces of the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Proponents of broad-spectrum CBD prefer to leverage the CBD “entourage effect” while omitting any traces of THC. It is important to note, however, that any remaining amounts of THC after the extraction process would in fact be just that, traces of CBD, which cannot cause any psychotic affects.
Full Spectrum CBD
Full-spectrum CBD is considered the preferred extraction method of CBD because it retains the most amount of naturally occurring phytochemicals from the hemp plant, creating an “entourage effect” together with the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. The full spectrum extraction process retains the highest number of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, which is a reason why some consider it the preferred CBD product. It also includes trace amounts of THC and THCA (less than .03% combined). Having that little amount of THC in the oil will not produce the “high” that recreational marijuana users experience, but instead will work together with the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids to produce an “entourage effect,” which proponents believe is more effective than any other type of extraction available.
PetSoothe is proud to use full spectrum CBD, and our supplier even goes one step further by taking the oil through a distillation process that further refines the CBD oil. Distillation involves gently heating the oil so the lipids, fats and waxes, which are naturally occurring in the cannabis plant, are separated from the oil. Once distilled, the oil is more refined and definitely purer.
At PetSoothe, we’re animal lovers and we’re committed to doing everything we can to make their lives as pleasant as possible, and it shows in our passion for creating top-notch CBD products for canines.